From Flat to Fantastic: 3D Texturing in Modern Visual Effects

This guest post from cloud render farm provider GarageFarm.NET explores the latest in 3D texture painting.

3D computer graphics are a cornerstone of visual effects (VFX), adding depth and dimension to even the most mundane of scenes. Whether it’s a sweeping landscape or a simple household object, 3D graphics play a vital role in creating a believable and immersive environment for the audience. Texturing is a crucial aspect of 3D graphics, as it allows VFX artists to add details and imperfections that make objects appear more realistic. By using high-quality textures that match the lighting and shading of live-action footage, VFX artists can create a seamless integration between the real and digital worlds, enhancing our viewing experience and suspending our disbelief.

In 3D production, textures refer to the digital images used to define the surface properties of objects in a 3D environment. They can be applied to everything from simple geometric shapes to complex organic models and can represent a wide range of surface characteristics, such as color, bumpiness, reflectivity, and transparency. How well these physical characteristics are replicated plays a major role in the success or failure of CG-enhanced imagery. For instance, it determines whether we, as viewers, can accept a CG character, prop, or set that real actors interact with in a film. When created inefficiently, textures can increase the time needed to render CG objects and sets.

While a render farm makes it possible to render computationally expensive CG much faster, texture artists not only face the challenges of creating immersion and character in their work, but they must also be able to balance visual quality with workflows that are optimized for the entire production pipeline. This article explores in some detail the techniques, workflows, considerations, and overall impact of 3D texturing in visual effects.


VFX artists can create textures using a variety of methods, including digital painting, procedural creation, and scanning real-world objects. For instance, digital painting can be used to create intricate details, such as scratches or wear and tear, on an object’s surface. Procedural textures can be used to create a customizable base for material such as wood, metal, or concrete, and scanning real-world objects using specialized equipment can provide precise and accurate texture information for digitizing actors, among other things. Ultimately, while there are common use cases for each of these techniques, they are for texture artists to employ at their discretion.

Hand Painted

Hand-painted textures are a technique used in VFX to create digital images of a surface by manually painting detail using software such as Adobe Substance 3D Painter and MARI, to name a couple, and there are some situations where hand-painting textures can be particularly useful. Three types of 3D objects that commonly require hand-painted texture detail include:

  1. Characters: Characters often require highly detailed textures that can be difficult to achieve using other techniques. Hand-painting textures allows artists to create intricate details such as wrinkles, scars, and skin pores that can help bring a character to life on screen.
  2. Organic objects: Organic objects such as trees, plants, and rocks often have irregular shapes and textures that can be difficult to capture using procedural or photorealistic techniques. Hand-painting textures can help artists create unique and realistic textures for these objects, adding to the overall visual impact of the scene.
  3. Customized props: In some cases, 3D objects may require customized textures that cannot be easily generated using other techniques. Hand-painting textures allows artists to create unique and personalized textures for props such as weapons, vehicles, and clothing, helping to create a more immersive and believable world for the characters to inhabit.

Texture painting software has become increasingly sophisticated in recent years, providing a wide range of tools and features for artists to make quick and precise edits to their textures. These tools include layering, masking, and blending, which can be used to create complex textures with intricate details. With hand-painted textures, artists have complete control over the look and feel of their textures, allowing them to create something truly unique.While hand-painting is sometimes used exclusively, they can be an effective way to add detail or personality to textures generated through other means.

A set of rocks with premade base textures with markings handpainted using a stencil texture and a layer mask in Adobe 3D Painter. Hand-painting the markings makes them easier to position and edit. By painting on the mask of the layer, the properties of the layer itself (color, roughness, height etc) can be changed without affecting the stroke or marking.


Procedural textures are a technique used in VFX to create textures using mathematical algorithms that generate patterns and shapes. This method is often used for creating textures for objects that have a repeating pattern or are highly geometric in nature, such as buildings or machinery.

One of the advantages of procedural textures is that they can be adjusted easily and quickly, making them a popular choice for creating variations of the same texture. For example, a VFX artist could create a procedural texture for a brick wall and then use software to adjust the color, size, and pattern of the bricks to create multiple variations of the same texture.

Another advantage of procedural textures is that they can be scaled infinitely without losing resolution. This is because procedural textures are generated mathematically rather than being based on a fixed set of pixels. As a result, procedural textures can be used for creating textures for objects of any size, from tiny details to entire landscapes.

A procedural “Desert Tile” texture by Sanctus, for Materials in Blender 3d. To the right are parameters that can adjust several aspects of the texture, such as the number, size and shapes of the tiles, the level of damage, and more. Inside of the material is an assembly of texture nodes that drive the color, roughness and displacement of the shader, that can be modified by simply adjusting the values shown on the right side of the image.

Some 3D objects that are particularly well-suited to procedural texturing include:

  1. Architectural elements: Buildings, walls, floors, and other architectural elements often have regular patterns or repeating details that can be easily generated using procedural texturing.
  2. Landscapes: Mountains, hills, and other natural landscapes can be difficult and time-consuming to texture by hand, but procedural texturing can help generate realistic textures quickly and efficiently.
  3. Sci-fi environments: Sci-fi environments often feature futuristic, geometric designs and patterns that can be challenging to create by hand. Procedural texturing can help generate these complex patterns quickly and with a high level of precision.
  4. Industrial objects: Mechanical objects such as gears, pipes, and machines often have repeating patterns that can be easily generated using procedural texturing.


Scanning physical surfaces is another technique that VFX artists use to create realistic textures for their 3D models. This method involves using specialized equipment to capture high-resolution images of real-world surfaces, such as terrain, textile patterns, and even human skin. The resulting images are then converted into 3D models and used as textures for anything from CG props to digital doubles in VFX shots.

A set of scanned face textures from the Texturing.XYZ catalogue. In VFX workflows, scanning plays a key role in making CG doubles indistinguishable from their real-world counterparts. (Source:
A final render based on those textures. (Source:

The process of converting scanned surfaces into workable texture maps involves several steps. First, the 3D scan data is imported into specialized software that can process the information and extract the necessary texture information. The software then generates a high-resolution texture map that captures the surface characteristics of the scanned object or environment.

The texture map may need to be cleaned up and edited to remove any artifacts, inconsistencies or unwanted information in the data. This can be done manually or using automated tools within various software. Once the texture map is cleaned up, it can be applied to a 3D model of the scanned object or environment to create a highly realistic representation in a VFX shot.

Agisoft’s De-lighter software demonstrated in a sketchfab model (from Agisoft). In some cases, a scanned object’s textures will contain shadows or occlusion from its surroundings. Software like the De-lighter is used to remove that information from the models texture’s to allow it to respond accurately to its 3d environment instead.

In some cases, the texture map may need to be further refined or enhanced to better match the lighting and shading of the live-action footage in a VFX shot. This can involve adjusting the color, contrast, or other properties of the texture map to achieve the desired result. Overall, the process of converting scanned surfaces into workable texture maps requires a combination of technical expertise and artistic skill to achieve the best possible result.

Textures as Storytelling Devices

Textures play a crucial role in visual storytelling, as they help to create mood and atmosphere, and enhance the overall visual narrative of a film or TV show. By using textures effectively, VFX artists can help to transport viewers into the world of the story and create a more immersive experience.

One of the key ways that textures can help to create mood and atmosphere is by establishing the look and feel of a particular environment. For example, textures for a post-apocalyptic landscape might be dark and gritty, while textures for a fantasy world might be vibrant and colorful. By using the right textures for each environment, VFX artists can help to create a more believable and immersive experience for viewers.

Textures can also help to enhance visual storytelling by conveying important information about characters, objects, or environments. For example, a character’s clothing or armor might have textures that reflect their personality or status, while the texture of an object might reveal important details about its function or history.

Examples of the use of textures in popular films and TV shows include the realistic and gritty textures of Mad Max: Fury Road, which helped to create the harsh and dangerous world of the film, and the colorful and intricate textures of the city in the animated film Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse, which helped to create a vibrant and visually stunning world for the story to unfold in.

In summary, textures play a vital role in visual storytelling, helping to create mood and atmosphere, and enhance the overall visual narrative of a film or TV show. By using textures effectively, VFX artists can help to transport viewers into the world of the story and create a more immersive experience.

Best Practices: Consistency and Optimization

Consistency in texturing can be achieved in several ways, but in general, considerations are made in terms of the aesthetic and in terms of resolution.

Aesthetic consistency refers to ensuring that textures are visually consistent across all elements of a scene. This can be achieved by using a consistent color palette, texture style, and lighting. Texture artists will often create a set of texture maps for a scene or object that are designed to work together, using similar lighting conditions and color grading to ensure a cohesive look.One of the key factors in achieving consistency is establishing a common visual language for the project.

This might involve creating a style guide or mood board that outlines the overall look and feel of the project, including the color palette, level of detail, and overall style. This can help ensure that all textures are created with the same visual language in mind.Texture artists often follow certain practices to maintain consistency and quality in their work. These may include:

  1. Reference gathering: Texture artists will often gather a range of reference images, such as photos or texture samples, to ensure that their work accurately reflects the surface characteristics of the object or environment they are creating textures for.
  2. Color and lighting consistency: Texture artists will ensure that the colors and lighting in their textures match those of the live-action footage in a VFX shot. This may involve adjusting the color balance or brightness of the texture to achieve a consistent look.
  3. Quality control: Texture artists will perform regular quality checks on their work to ensure that it meets the standards of the project. This may involve working closely with supervisors or other team members to identify areas for improvement and refine their work accordingly.
  4. File management: Texture artists will often use a structured file management system to keep track of their work and ensure that all files are named and organized in a consistent manner. This helps to avoid confusion and ensures that the work can be easily shared and integrated into the broader VFX pipeline.
Credit: Wanderer, designed and created by Daniel Bystedt. CC BY-SA license. This Blender Demo Scene is a great example of consistency in both fronts. Aesthetically, it uses a complementary color scheme and varying degrees of saturation to create a hierarchy of visual interest as well as an immersive experience.

Resolution consistency, on the other hand, refers to ensuring that textures have a consistent level of detail across all elements of a scene. This can be achieved by creating texture maps at the appropriate resolution for each element of the scene, based on factors such as distance from the camera and the importance of the element to the shot. For example, elements that are closer to the camera may require higher resolution texture maps to maintain detail and avoid appearing blurry or pixelated. Resolution consistency is an important consideration for texture artists when creating texture maps for a 3D scene. Maintaining consistent resolution across all elements of a scene is crucial for creating a seamless and believable final product. This is most visible in the management of Texel Density.

Texel Density Management

Texel density is critical in VFX because it ensures that the textures applied to 3D models are of a high enough resolution to maintain detail and sharpness, while also being efficient enough to not slow down the rendering process. When a texture is applied to a 3D model, the texel density ensures that each texel (texture pixel) is represented by a consistent number of pixels in the rendered image. This helps to prevent texture blurring or pixelation, which can negatively impact the realism of a VFX shot. Additionally, maintaining a consistent texel density across all assets in a VFX shot can help to ensure that the lighting and shading are consistent throughout the scene, further enhancing the believability of the final result.

Texture artists in VFX often have to work with large-scale assets, such as massive creatures or intricate environments, where maintaining a high texel density can quickly become a resource-intensive task. However, by optimizing the texel density through careful UV unwrapping and efficient use of texture space, artists can create high-quality textures that render quickly and efficiently, resulting in a more seamless integration between the live-action footage and the CG elements.Texel density is calculated by dividing the number of texture pixels (texels) by the area they cover in 3D space. In other words, it determines the number of texture pixels per unit of 3D space, usually measured in pixels per meter (ppm), pixels per centimeter or pixels per inch (ppi). To calculate the optimal texel density for a specific object or scene, VFX artists must take into account the final resolution of the rendered frame and the size of the object in the frame. By ensuring a consistent texel density across all objects in a scene, artists can optimize the texture resolution and avoid wasted pixels, resulting in faster render times and better visual quality.

Two cylinders sharing a bark texture in a 3d viewport.
A close render of the cylinders side by side.
UV layout of both cylinders overlaid on the bark texture’s height map. Notice that on the render, the larger cylinder’s texture is visibly less crisp than the smaller cylinder’s texture. Though they both use the same texture maps at 1048 x 1048 resolution, and have the same UV layout, the left cylinder occupies more space and therefore its Texel Density is less than the cylinder on the right. This is a simple illustration of the need for Texel Density management.
A render of the cylinder models with proportional Texel Density.
The adjusted size of the right cylinder’s UVs in relation to the original size still used by the left cylinder. Notice the textures now share a consistent level of fidelity.

The optimal texel density for renders in film varies depending on the specific project and its requirements, but as an example in a hypothetical production, a team may decide to have a texel density of around 100 pixels per meter (ppm) for hero assets, which are objects or characters that receive close-up shots and require high levels of detail. For background assets or objects that will not receive close-up shots, a lower texel density of around 30-50 ppm may be sufficient. It’s important to note that texel density is not the only factor that determines the quality of a texture, and other factors such as UV distortion and texture resolution also play a role in the final look of a rendered frame.

With an overlay of a UV checker grid on Mr. Bystedt’s “Wanderer” scene, the management of texel density is evident in the consistent resolution of foreground elements compared to the mid and background, which are occluded by shadow, volumetrics and depth of field.

Managing texel density in texturing has some constraints that need to be considered. As the texture resolution increases, the file size also increases, which can cause performance issues. High-resolution textures can take up a significant amount of memory, which can cause rendering times to increase, especially when rendering complex scenes with many textures. This can result in a compromise between resolution and time constraints, which may result in lower resolution textures. For assets like creatures or vehicles that are seen up close in many scenes throughout a film, a technique called UDIM UV mapping is employed.

UDIMs are a method for managing texture data in VFX that allows for the creation of large, high-resolution textures without compromising texel density. They work by dividing a single texture map into multiple tiles, with each tile containing a different section of the texture. This allows artists to create textures that are much larger than the standard texture size limit and maintain consistent texel density throughout the entire texture. By using UDIMs, artists can avoid the constraints imposed by texel density and create more detailed and realistic textures.

Credits: Monster, designed and created by Daniel Bystedt. CC BY-SA 3.0 license Right: The model in-frame. Left: the level of detail present in the rear section of the creature’s head and upper back. Bottom: The layout of the creature’s UVs across 5 UDIM Tiles. Each UDIM tile can be seen as a dedicated UV grid for sections of the creature’s body. Each tile accommodates its own set of textures. To achieve this level of Texel Density without UDIMs would mean using an excessively large set of texture maps since each UV shell of the creature would need to be packed into one tile instead of 5.

Render Farms

Render farms are a vital tool in the VFX industry, allowing for the creation of highly detailed and complex visual effects in a much shorter time frame than would be possible on a single computer. Render farms work by distributing the rendering workload across multiple machines, often numbering in the hundreds or even thousands, that are connected together in a network. This network is managed by specialized software that allows for the efficient distribution and management of the rendering process, ensuring that each machine is assigned a specific portion of the workload and that the final output is assembled correctly.

Render farms are used in a wide variety of VFX productions, from feature films to TV commercials and animated shorts. By allowing for much faster rendering times, they enable VFX artists to work with higher levels of detail and resolution, creating more realistic and immersive visuals. This is especially important in the highly competitive VFX industry, where the ability to create stunning and photorealistic effects is often the key to success.

While render farms are incredibly powerful tools, they also come with their own set of challenges. Managing the distribution of assets and data across the network can be complex, and there are often limitations on the amount of data that can be transferred between machines. Additionally, the use of render farms can significantly increase production costs, as the rental or purchase of additional hardware and software is required to set up and maintain the network. Nonetheless, the benefits of using a render farm, including faster rendering times and the ability to achieve higher levels of quality, make it an essential component of modern VFX production.

Fortunately, in addition to in-house render farms, there are also online render farm services that VFX studios and artists can use. These services allow for the same benefits of faster rendering times without the added expenses of maintaining and updating hardware in-house. With an online render farm, users can upload their 3D scenes and specify the desired output settings and render times. The service then distributes the rendering workload across a network of powerful servers, completing the task in a fraction of the time it would take on a single machine. Some online farms even offer cloud-based storage solutions for users to store and access their 3D scenes and assets. This allows VFX artists to focus on their creative work, rather than the technical aspects of rendering, while still achieving high-quality output for their projects.

GarageFarm.NET- an online renderfarm offers wide support of popular tools as well as a support team that can be communicated with in real-time via their chat application.


3D texturing continues to revolutionize the world of VFX, enabling artists to create more realistic and detailed computer-generated imagery than ever before. Thanks to 3D texturing, it is possible to simulate a wide range of surface characteristics and textures, from the roughness of stone to the smoothness of silk. This technology has transformed the way we interact with CG in film and other media, allowing for more immersive and engaging visual experiences. Whether it’s creating lifelike creatures or intricate environments, 3D texturing has opened up new avenues for creative expression and storytelling in the world of visual effects.

Brought to you by GarageFarm.NET: This article is part of the befores & afters VFX Insight series. If you’d like to promote your VFX/animation/CG tech or service, you can find out more about the VFX Insight series here.
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